The Jesuit New World Order

Wednesday, 21 December 2011

THe JeSuiTS, CLeRMoNT CoLLeGe, THe STuaRTS & aDVaNCeD-DeGRee FReeMaSoNRY

ENCYCLOPEDIA OF FREEMASONRY AND ITS KINDRED SCIENCES
by ALBERT C. MACKEY M. D.

http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/mackeys_encyclopedia/c.htm
CLERMONT, COLLEGE OF
College of Jesuits in Paris, where James II, after his flight from England, in 1688, resided until his removal to St. Germain.
During his residence there, he is said to have sought the establishment of a system of Freemasonry, the object of which should be the restoration of the House of Stuart to the throne of England. Relics of this attempted system are still to be found in many of the advanced Degrees, and the Chapter of Clermont, subsequently organized in Paris, appears to have had some reference to it.
http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/mackeys_encyclopedia/j.htm
JESUITS
In the eighteenth century the Jesuits were charged with having an intimate connection with Freemasonry, and the invention of the Degree of Kadosh was even attributed to those members of the Society who constituted the College of Clermont. This theory of a Jesuitical Freemasonry seems to have originated with the Illuminati, who were probably governed in its promulgation by a desire to depreciate the character of all other Masonic systems in comparison with their own, where no such priestly interference was permitted. Barruel scoffs at the idea of such a connection, and cans it (Histoire de Jacobinisme iv, page 287) “la fable de la Franc-Maçonnerie Jésuitique” meaning an invention of false or Jesuitical Freemasonry. For once he is right. Like oil and water the tolerance of Freemasonry and the intolerance of the “Society of Jesus” cannot commingle. Yet it cannot be denied that, while the Jesuits have had no part in the construction of pure Freemasonry, there are reasons for believing that they took an interest in the invention of some Degrees and systems which were intended to advance their own interests. But wherever they touched the Institution they left the trail of the serpent.
They sought to convert its pure philanthropy and toleration into political intrigue and religious bigotry. Hence it is believed that they had something to do with the invention of those Degrees, which were intended to aid the exiled house of Stuart in its efforts to regain the English throne, because they believed that would secure the restoration in England of the Roman Catholic religion. Almost a library of books has been written on both sides of this subject in Germany and in France.

http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/mackeys_encyclopedia/p.htm
PERFECTION, RITE OF
In 1754, the Chevalier de Bonneville established a Chapter of the advanced Degrees at Paris, in the College of Jesuits of Clermont, hence called the Chapter of Clermont. The system of Freemasonry he there practiced received the name of the Rite of Perfection, or Rite of Heredom. The College of Clermont was, says Rebold (History of Three Grand Lodges, page 46) the asylum of the adherents of the House of Stuart, and hence the Rite is to some extent tinctured with Stuart Freemasonry It consisted of twenty-five Degrees as follows:
1. Apprentice
2. Fellow Craft
3. Master
4. Secret Master
5. Perfect Master
6. Intimate Secretary
7. Intendant of the Building
8. Provost and Judge
9. Elect of Nine
10. Elect of Fifteen
11. Illustrious Elect, Chief of the Twelve Tribes
12. Grand Master Architect
13- Royal Arch
14. Grand, Elect, Ancient, Perfect Master
15. Knight of the Sword
16. Prince of Jerusalem
17. Knight of the East and West
18. Rose Croix Knight
19. Grand Pontiff
20. Grand Patriarch
21. Grand Master of the Key of Freemasonry
22. Prince of Libanus
23. Sovereign Prince Adept Chief of the Grand Consistory
24. Illustrious Knight Commander of the Black and White Eagle
25. Most Illustrious Sovereign Prince of Freemasonry, Grand Knight, Sublime Commander of the Royal Secret.

It will be seen that the Degrees of this Rite are the same as those of the Council of Emperors of the East and West, which was established four years later, and to which the Chapter of Clermont gave way. Of course, they are the same, so far as they go, as those of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite which succeeded the Council of Emperors. The distinguishing principle of this Rite is, that Freemasonry was derived from Templarism, and that consequently every Freemason was a Knight Templar. It was there that the Baron von Hund was initiated, and from it, through him, proceeded the Rite of Strict Observance; although he discarded the Degrees and retained only the Templar theory.
http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/mackeys_encyclopedia/r.htm
RITUAL

There is also a curious comparison of Masonic forms and customs with those of the Jesuits in Les Jesuits Chassés de la MaMonnerie et leur Poignard brisé par les Masons, 1788, and in this connection one notes with attention the reference in Loyola and the Educational System of the Jesuits, Rev. Thomas Hughes, S. J. (chapter iv, page 232), the repeated reference to the Lion’s Paw, “The paw shows the lion,” “You can tell a lion by his paw,” “Ex ungue leonem,” etc., in a discourse are somewhat suggestive, but the other work is much more elaborate and detailed.

http://www.phoenixmasonry.org/mackeys_encyclopedia/s.htm
SCOTTISH RITE
Some authorities call this the Ancient and Accepted Rite, but as the Latin Constitutions of the Order designate it as the Antiquus Scoticus Ritus Acceptus, or the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, that title has now been very generally adopted as the correct name of the Rite.
Although one of the youngest of the Masonic Rites, having been established not earlier than the year 1801, it is at this day most popular and the most extensively diffused. Supreme Councils or governing Bodies of the Rite are to be found in almost every civilized country of the world, and in many of them it is the only Masonic Obedience. The history of its organization is briefly this: In 1758, a Body was organized at Paris called the Council of Emperors of the East and West. This Council organized a Rite called the Rite of Perfection, which consisted of twenty-five Degrees, the highest of which was Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret.
In 1761, this Council granted a Patent or Deputation to Stephen Morin, authorizing him to propagate the Rite in the Western Continent, whither he was about to repair. In the same year, Morin arrived at the City of Santo Domingo, where he commenced the dissemination of the Rite, and appointed many Inspectors, both for the West Indies and for the United States. Among others, he conferred the Degrees on Moses M. Hayes, with a power of appoint ing others when necessary. Hayes accordingly appointed Isaac Da Costa Deputy Inspector-General for South Carolina, who in 1783 introduced the Rite into that State by the establishment of a Grand Lodge of Perfection in Charleston. Other Inspectors were subsequently appointed, and in 1801 a Supreme Council lvas opened in Charleston by John Mitchell and Frederick Dalcho.
There is abundant evidence in the Archives of the Supreme Council that up to that time the twenty-five Degrees of the Rite of Perfection were alone recognized. But suddenly, with the organization of the Supreme Council, there arose a new Rite, fabricated by the adoption of eight more of the continental advanced Degrees, so as to make the Thirty-third and not the Twenty-fifth Degree the summit of the Rite.
The Rite consists of thirty-three Degrees, which are divided into six sections, each section being under an appropriate Jurisdiction, and are as follows:
I. SYMBOLIC LODGE
1. Entered Apprentice
2. Fellow Craft
3. Master Mason

These are sometimes called the Blue or Symbolic Degrees. They are not conferred by the Scottish Rite in England, Scotland, Ireland, or in the United States because the Supreme Councils refrain from exercising jurisdiction through respect to the older authority in those countries of the York and American Rite.
II. LODGE OF PERFECTION
4. Secret Master
5. Perfect Master
6. Intimate Seeretary
7. Provost and Judge
8. Intendant of the Building
9. Elu, or Elected Knight, of the Nine
10. Illustrious Elect, or Elu, of the Fifteen
11. Sublime Knight Elect, or Elu, of the Twelve
12. Grand Master Architect
13. Knight of the Ninth Areh, or Royal Arch of Solomon
14. Grand Elect, Perfeet and Sublime Mason or

III. CHAPTER OF ROSE CROIX
15. Knight of the East
16. Prince of Jerusalem
17. Knight of the East and West
18. Prince Rose Croix

IV. COUNCIL OF KADOSH
19. Grand Pontiff
20. Grand Master of Symbolic Lodges
21. Noachite, or Prussian Knight
22. Knight of the Royal Ax, or Prince of
23. Chief of the Tabernacle
24. Prince of the Tabernacle
25. Knight of the Brazen Serpent
26. Prince of Mercy
27. Knight Commander of the Temple
28. Knight of the Sun, or Prince Adept
29. Grand Scottish Knight of Saint Andrew
30. Knight Kadosh

V. CONSISTORY OF SUBLIME PRINCES OR MASTERS, OF THE ROYAL SECRET
31. Inspector Inquisitor Commander
32. Sublime Princo of the Roya1 Secrets VI
SUPREME COUNCIL
33. Sovereign Grand Inspector-General

The classification of the above Degrees is as they are arranged in the Southern Jurisdiction. In the Northern Masonic Jurisdiction the Consistory grades begin at Grand Pontiff, the nineteenth, and include the thirty-second, Sublime Prince of the Royal Secret, and the Council of Princes of Jerusalem governs the fifteenth and sixteenth grades Several of the titles of the Degrees vary in their use by the Supreme Councils but the above table covers most of these variations. The Southern Jurisdiction for example omits the word Grand from the names of the twelfth, fourteenth, nineteenth, twentieth and twenty-ninth grades, and also uses Elu instead of the other designations, omits Commander from the thirty-first, and specifies Master in the thirty-second.
A full account of the Rite is in Doctor Mackey’s revised History of Freemasonry but numerous details under individual headings are in the present work (see Educational Foundalions).
STUART MASONRY
This title is given by Masonic historians to that system of Freemasonry Which is supposed to have been invented by the adherents of the exiled House of Stuart for the purpose of being used as a political means of restoring, first, James II, and afterward his son and grandson, James and Charles Edward, respectively known in history as the Chevalier Saint George and the Young Pretender. Most of the conclusions to which Masonic writers have arrived on the subject of this connection of the Stuarts with the advanced Degrees of Freemasonry are based on conjecture; but in the opinion of Doctor Mackey there is sufficient internal evidence in the character of some of these Degrees, as well as in the known history of their organization, to establish the fact that such a connection did actually exist.
The first efforts to create a Masonic influence in behalf of his family is attributed to James II, who had abdicated the throne of England in 1688. Of him, Noorthouck says (Constitutions, 1784, page 192), that he was not “a Brother Mason,” and sneeringly adds, in his index, that “he might have been a better King had he been a Mason.” But Lenning says that after his flight to France, and during his residence at the Jesuit College of Clermont, where he remained for some time, his adherents, among whom were the Jesuits, fabricated certain Degrees with the ulterior design of carrying out their political views. At a later period these Degrees were, he says, incorporated into French Freemasonry under the name of the Clermont System, in reference to their original construction at that place. Gädicke had also said that many Scotchmen followed him, and thus introduced Freemasonry into France. But this opinion is only worthy of citation because it proves that such an opinion was current among the German scholars of the eighteenth century.
On his death, which took place at the Palace of St. Germain en Laye in 1701, he was succeeded in his claims to the British throne by his son, who was recognized by Louis XIV, of France, under the title of James III, but who is better known as the Chevalier Saint George, or the Old Pretender. The word Pretender here should be given the understanding of claimant. He also sought, says Lenning, to find in the high Degrees of Freemasonry a support for his political views, but, as he remarks, with no better results than those which had attended the attempts of his father.
His son, Prince Charles Edward, who was commonly called by the English the Young Pretender, took a more active part than either his father or grandfather in the pursuits of Freemasonry; and there is abundant historical evidence that he was not only a Freemason, but that he held high office in the Order, and was for a time zealously engaged in its propagation; always, however, it is supposed, with political views.

In 1745 he invaded Scotland, with a view to regain the lost throne of his ancestors, and met for some time with more than partial success. On September 24, 1745, he was admitted into the Order of Knights’ Templar, and was elected Grand Master, an office which it is said that he held until his death. On his return to France after his ill-fated expedition, the Prince is said to have established at the City of Arras, on April 151 1747, a Rose Croix Chapter under the title of Scottish Jacobite Chapter. In the Patent for this Chapter he styles himself “King of England, France, Scotland, and Ireland, and, as such, Substitute Grand Master of the Chapter of Herodem, known under the title of Knight of the Eagle and Peliean, and since our misfortunes and disasters under that of Rose Croix.”
In 1748, the Rite of the Veille-Bru, or Faithful Scottish Masons, was created at Toulouse in grateful remembrance of the reception given by the Freemasons of that Orient to Sir Samuel Lockhart, the Aide-de-camp of the Pretender. Ragan says (Orthodoxie Maçonnique, page 122), in a note to this statement, the “favorites who accompanied this prince into France were in the habit of selling to speculators Charters for Mother Lodges, Patents for Chapters, etc. These titles were their property, and they did not fail to make use of them as a means of livelihood.” Ragon says (Thuileur General, page 367), that the degrees of Irish Master, Perfect Irish Master, and Puissant Irish Master were invented in France, in 1747, by the favorites of Charles Edward Stuart and sold to the partisans of that Prince. One Degree was openly called the Scottish Master of the Sacree Vault of James VI, as if to indicate its Stuart character. The Degree still exists as the Thirteenth of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, but it has been shorn of its political pretensions and its title changed.
Findell has given in his History of Freemasonry (English translation, page 209), a very calm and impartial account of the rise of this Stuart Freemasonry. He says: “Ever since the banishment of the Stuarts from England in 1688, secret alliances had been kept up between Rome and Scotland; for to the former place the Pretender James Stuart had retired in l719, and his son Charles Edward was born there in 1720; and these communications became the more intimate, the higher the hopes of the Pretender rose. The Jesuits played a very important part in these conferences. Regarding the reinstatement of the Stuarts and the extension of the power of the Roman church as identical, they sought, at that time, to make the society of Freemasons subservient to their ends. But to make use of the Fraternity to restore the exiled family to the throne could not possibly have been contemplated, as Freemasonry could hardly be said to exist in Scotland then.
Perhaps in 1724, when Ramsay was a year in Rome, or in 1728, when the Pretender in Parma kept up an intercourse with the restless Duke of Wharton, a Past Grand Master, this idea was first entertained; and then, when it was apparent how difficult it would be to corrupt the loyalty and fealty of Freemasonry in the Grand Lodge of Scotland, founded in 1736, this Scheme was set on foot, of assembling the faithful adherents of the banished royal family in the high Degrees! The soil which was best adapted for this innovation was France, where the low ebb to which Freemasonry had sunk had paved the way for all kinds of newfangled notions, and where the Lodges were composed of Scotch conspirators and accomplices of the Jesuits. When the path had thus been smoothed by the agency of these secret propagandists, Ramsay, at that time Grand Orator, an office unknown in England, by his speech completed the preliminaries necessary for the introduction of the high Degrees; their further development was left to the instrumentality of others, whose influence produced a result somewhat different from that originally intended. Their course we can now pursue, assisted by authentic historical information.
In 1752, Scottish Masonry, as it was denominated, penetrated into Germany, Berlin, prepared from a ritual very similar to one used in Lille in 1749 and 1750. In 1743, Thory tells us, the Masons in Lyons, under the name of the Petit Elu, or the Lesser Elect, invented the Degree of Kadosh, which represents the revenge of the Templars. The Order of Knights Templar had been abolished in 1311, and to that epoch they were obliged to have recourse when, after the banishment of several Knights from Malta in 1720 because they were Freemasons, it was not longer possible to keep up a connection with the Order of Saint John or Knights of Malta. then in the plenitude of their power under the sovereignty of the Pope. A pamphlet entitled Freemasonry Divested of all its Secrets published in Strasburg in 1745, contains the first glimpse of the Strict Observance, and demonstrates how much they expected the Brotherhood to contribute towards the expedition in favor of the Pretender. “
From what has been said, it is evident there was a strong belief that the exiled House of Stuart exercised an important part in the invention and extension of what has been called the High Masonry. The traces of the political system are seen at the present day in the internal organization of some of the advanced Degrees especially in the derivation and meaning of certain significant words. There is, indeed, abundant reason for believing that the substitute word of the Third Degree was changed by Ramsay, or some other fabricator of Degrees, to give it a reference to James II as “the son of the widow,” Queen Henrietta Maria. Further researches are needed to enable any author to Satisfactorily write all the details of this interesting episode in the history of Continental freemasonry . Documents are still wanting to elucidate certain intricate and, at present, apparently contradictory points.
In the Jacobite Lodge at Rome, by Brother William James Hughan, the author states (page 25): “Many statements have appeared from time to time respecting Prince Charles Edward Stuart’s connection with Freemasonry, documents being submitted to prove that he even held the highest possible rank in the craft; but so far as I have been able to discover, all such claims are of an apocryphal character. Some are most absurd, while others are directly opposed to the actual facts of the case.”
This may be supplemented by what Brother George W. Speth states on page 27 of the same work where he advises students, “to put no trust whatever in amounts connecting the Stuarts with Freemasonry. We have, too, in the Young Pretender’s own written and verbal statements that they are absolutely baseless, pure inventions.” However, as Brother Robert Freke Gould tells us, some “have affirmed, and with perhaps the greater share of reason, that the Prince was compelled by altered circumstances of his cause to repudiate any relations with Freemasonry,” and, of course, that gives another view of the matter, though it is curious that all through these years the tradition should have held its own with such remarkable tenacity.
http://www.geocities.com/stlaasr/morin.html
The Rite of Perfection
In 1754, the Chevalier de Bonneville established a Chapter of the Advanced Degrees at Paris, in the College of Jesuits of Clermont, hence called the Chapter of Clermont. The system of Freemasonry he practiced received the name of the Rite of Perfection or Rite of Heredom. The College of Clermont was the asylum of the adherents of the House of Stuart, and hence the Rite is to some extent tinctured with Stuart Freemasonry.
It consisted of twenty-five Degrees as follows: 1. Apprentice; 2. Fellow Craft; 3. Master; 4. Secret Master; 5. Perfect Master; 6. Intimate Secretary; 7. Intendant of the Building; 8. Provost and Judge; 9. Elect of Nine; 10. Elect of Fifteen; 11. Illustrious Elect, Chief of the Twelve Tribes; 12. Grand Master Architect; 13. Royal Arch: 14. Grand, Elect, Ancient, Perfect Master; 15. Knight of the Sword; 16. Prince of Jerusalem; 17. Knight of the East and West; 18. Rose Croix Knight; 19. Grand Pontiff; 20. Grand Patriarch; 21. Grand Master of the Key of Freemasonry; 22. Prince of Libanus; 23. Sovereign Prince Adept Chief of the Grand Consistory; 24. Illustrious Knight Commander of the Black and White Eagle; 25. Most Illustrious Sovereign Prince of Freemasonry, Grand Knight, Sublime Commander of the Royal Secret.
It will be seen that the Degrees of this Rite are the same as those of the Council of Emperors of the East and West, which was established four years later, and to which the Chapter of Clermont gave way. Of course, they are the same, so far as they go, as the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite which succeeded the Council of Emperors.
The distinguishing principle of this Rite is that Freemasonry was derived from Templarism and that, consequently, every Freemason was a Knight Templar. It was there that the Baron von Hund was initiated, and from it, and through him, proceeded the Rite of Strict Observance; although he discarded the Degrees and retained only the Templar theory.
____________________________
Sources:
Mackey’s Revised Encyclopedia of Freemasonry
Coil’s Masonic Encyclopedia
Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma


Thanks to Oliver (Quintessenz) for the following quotes.

Freemasonry and the Roman Catholic Church ­ – collection of quotes‏:
* F. Tupper Saussy – “Rulers Of Evil” (pages 40-41, 58-59, 120-121):
“A subtle provision in Vox clamantis transferred most Templar estates to the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who took possession after King Philip’s death. In Germany and Austria, the Templars became ‘Rosicrucians’ and ‘Teutonic Knights.’ The Teutonic Knights grew strong in Mainz, birthplace of Gutenberg’s press. Six centuries later, as the ‘Teutonic Order,’ the Knights would provide the nucleus of Adolf Hitler’s political support in Munich and Vienna.
The Edinburgh lodge would become the headquarters of Scottish Rite Freemasonry, which Masonic historians call ‘American Freemasonry’ because all but five of the signers of the Declaration of Independence are said to have practiced its craft. In Spain andPortugal the Templars became the ‘Illuminati’ in whom Iñigo had taken membership at Manresa, and ‘Knights of Christ.’ It was under the red pattée cross of the Knights of Christ that Columbus had taken possession of what he called ‘las Indias’ for King Ferdinand V of Spain, grandfather of Iñigo’s discreet patron, Charles I and V, the Holy Roman Emperor.
As early as August of 1523, as I hypothesized in the previous chapter, this vast yet fragmented subterranean empire – Roman Catholicism’s unseen root-system binding together the world – belonged to Iñigo de Loyola. His spiritual dynasty, which continues to this day, would use this system to cause God-fearing men who hated the papacy to perform, without realizing it, exactly how the papacy wanted them to.”

[...]
“The Inquisition’s effect, of course, was to send the more resourceful of the ‘heretics, Protestants and Liberals’ who escaped torture or execution scurrying underground, or into the burgeoning world of commerce, or into regions where Protestant civil authorities kept Inquisitors at bay. Yearning for a less intrusive religious experience, they joined attractive philosophical fraternities where they could speak freely against Roman Catholicism. For this ostensible reason, these fraternities or cults or lodges operated in secrecy. In fact, they were the remnants of the Templar network – Rosicrucians, Teutonic Knights, the numerous and various rites of Freemasonry. Like the Templars and the Jesuits, they were religious hierarchies of strict obedience. They differed from the Jesuits, however, in that their pyramid culminated in an ultimate authority no brother could identify with certainty. The highest master of a Lodge received commandments from an ‘Unknown Superior,’ a Superior whose will the master’s whole struggle up the degrees had trained him to obey without question. What the masters never realized was that this mysterious personage, as we shall examine in more detail later, was in fact none other than the Black Pope.”
[...]
“Freemasonry was the natural, the reasonable, the only intelligent way for the Roman Catholic Church to control A: the ongoing affront of Protestantism; B: the increase in ‘divine right’ kings heading their own national churches independent of Vatican control; and C: the incredible explosion of international mercantilism. [...] The Jesuit General is the disembodied eye substituting for the pyramid’s missing capstone, the stone the builders rejected. [...] Both Freemasonry and the Society of Jesus are A: humanist religious orders; B: secretive; C: fraternal; D: socially conscientious and politically active – questing, like Aeneas, the prototypical Roman, for the greatest good for the greatest number; Both orders E: hold Tradition, Reason, and Experience in equal if not greater esteem than the Bible; F: employ carefully structured programs of gnostic visualization to achieve an ever-increasing knowledge of the divine; G: condone ‘the end justifies the means’; and H: require absolute obedience, secured by blood oath, to a hierarchy of superiors culminating in the Jesuit General, whose orders are so wisely suited to the recipient that they are obeyed as though willed by the recipient himself.”
* Anthony W. Ivins – “The Relationship of ‘Mormonism’ and Freemasonry”, 1934:
“Mathew Ramsey, a Scotch gentleman, and writer on the subject, believed that Freemasonry had its origin with the Knights Templar.
Between the date of its inception at Jerusalem, in 1118 and 1314, the Order of Knights Templars had become a powerful and wealthy organization. They recognized allegiance to no power above that Church, of which the Pope was the recognized head.”
* Letter of the Freemason/Theosophist Charles Sotheran to the New York Press Club, 11th of January 1877:
“It is curious to note too that most of the bodies which work these, such as the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite, the Rite of Avignon, the Order of the Temple, Fessler’s Rite, the ‘Grand Council of the Emperors of the East and West — Sovereign Prince Masons,’ etc., etc., are nearly all the offspring of the sons of Ignatius Loyola. The Baron Hundt, Chevalier Ramsay, Tschoudy, Zinnendorf, and numerous others who founded the grades in these rites, worked under instructions from the General of the Jesuits. The nest where these high degrees were hatched, and no Masonic rite is free from their baleful influence more or less, was the Jesuit College of Clermont at Paris.”
* Eric Jon Phelps – Spectrum magazine interview:
http://www.whale.to/b/pope.html
http://www.govsux.com/black_pope.htm

“It’s just like Freemasonry. The lower have no idea that the High Shriner Freemasons are working for the Jesuit General. They think that they’re just doing works and being good people. But the bottom line is that the high-level Freemasons are subject, also, to the Jesuit General because the Jesuit General, with Fredrick the Great, wrote the High Degrees, the last 8 Degrees, of the Scottish Rite Freemasonry when Fredrick protected them when they were suppressed by the Pope in 1773.
So, you have the alignment with the Jesuit Order and the most powerful Freemason they had in the craft, Fredrick the Great, during their suppression. That is an irrefutable conclusion. And then, when you see the Napoleonic Wars, the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars carried out by Freemasonry, everything Napoleon did, and the Jacobins, whatever they did, completely benefited the Jesuit Order.”
* William Peterson – “Ask Me Another, Brother”:
“The Jesuits wrote the first 25 rites of Scottish Freemasonry in then College de Clermont in Paris in 1754”
“Chevalier de Bonneville formed a chapter of twenty-five Degrees of the so-called High-Degrees in the College of Jesuits of Clermont, in Paris in 1754. The adherents of the House of Stuart had made the college of Clermont their asylum, they being mostly Scotchmen. One of these Degrees being the ‘Scottish Master,’ the new body organized in Charleston, S.C., in 1801, gave the name of Scottish Rite to these Degrees, which name ever since that time has characterized the Rite all over the world.”
* James Parton (American Historian) – “The Life of Horace Greeley”, 1855:
“There are still old ladies, male and female, about the country, who will tell you, with grim gravity that, if you trace up Masonry, through all its Orders, till you come to the grand tip-top, head Mason of the World, you will discover that the dread individual and the Chief of the Society of Jesus are one and the same person!”
* Heckethorn (English Historian) – “Secret Societies of all Ages and Countries”, 1900:
“There is considerable analogy between Masonic and Jesuitic degrees; and the Jesuits also tread down the shoe and bare the knee, because Ignatius Loyola thus presented himself at Rome and asked for the confirmation of the order.”
* John Daniel – “The Grand Design Exposed” (pages 170, 212-213, 302):
“This inner and invisible Freemasonry is international in extent, and it is within the Inner Circle that the Jesuits conceal themselves, work, and mastermind the projects that suit their goals.”
“Without exception, every chief actor in the French Revolution [1789-1799] was either Jesuit-educated, a Catholic prelate, or a member of the Illuminati Order where within the Jacobin Club they would come together to conspire and carry out the ‘Great Work’ – which in the open system of the Jacobins was the reflection of the complete hidden system of the Illuminati – and in back of the Illuminati were the hidden Jesuit ‘masters’.”
“The truth is that the Jesuits of Rome have perfected Freemasonry to be their most magnificent and effective tool, accomplishing their purposes among Protestants”.
* I. A. Sadler – “Mystery, Babylon the Great”, 2003 (pages 175-181):
“Freemasonry is another branch of the Babylonian Mysteries, which has survived under different names from the time of the fall of open pagan worship in the 5th century. … Freemasonry is just as ripe for manipulation by the Jesuits and the Church of Rome, that it may be used for the purposes of Rome, as any Protestant denomination. … In Britain and the USA, Freemasonry appears as a ‘Christian’ organization. However, this is a most dangerous pretense, for the true god of Freemasonry is Lucifer, who is Satan appearing as an angel of light. …Both Freemasonry and the Church of Rome [at their highest levels] worship the same god… Masonic ceremonies implicitly deny the sufficiency of Scripture. …[Freemasonry] is particularly strong in many Baptist churches in the USA… Those in the lower levels of Freemasonry know nothing about the higher and even more secretive degrees.”
* Alberto Rivera (Spanish ex-Jesuit) – “The Godfathers”, 1979:
“The higher I went in the Jesuit Order, the more corruption I saw within the institution. I was invited to attend a secret black mass by high-ranking Jesuits [including Superior General Pedro Arrupe] in a monastery in the northern part of Spain. When I knelt to kiss the ring of a high official, I saw a symbol on that ring that made my blood run cold. It was a Masonic symbol [the compass and the square]! A thing I hated and I had been told to fight against it… I found out the Jesuit General was also a Mason and a member of the Communist Party in Spain.”


And two sources in German [need to be translated]:
* Dieter Rüggeberg – “Geheimpolitik – Der Fahrplan zur Weltherrschaft”:
“Auch jene Erkenntnis, von der ich schon geschrieben habe, daß in den obersten Etagen der höchsten Logen und Orden die Unterschiede von Konfessionen und politischen Ansichten verschwinden, wird von ihm bestätigt: ‚Mögen sich auf den unteren Ebenen Freimaurerei und Jesuitismus und damit der Katholizismus noch so sehr bekämpfen, in ihren obersten Spitzen stimmen beide überein, mag das noch so abwegig erscheinen…. Nunmehr trat Kardinal Wojtyla als Papst Johannes Paul II. sein Amt in Rom an. Er erhielt von der gesamten freimaurerischen Weltpresse überschwengliche begeisterte Zustimmung und hob mit Wirkung des 27.11.1983 (Beginn des Kirchenjahres und 1. Advent) die im Codex luris Canonici weltweit ausgesprochene Exkommunikation der Freimaurer auf.’ [Heinz Pfeifer: "Brüder des Schattens”, S. 234,236]”
* Rudolf Steiner – “Die Tempelgrade und die goldene Legende”:
“Daher haben Sie sowohl im Jesuitismus wie im Freimaurertum eine Fortsetzung derselben Zeremonien bei den Einweihungen wie in den alten Strömungen. Die Einweihung der Kirche im Jesuitismus hat die vier Grade: coadjutores temporales, scholares, coadjutores spirituales, professi. Die Grade der Einweihung in der eigentlichen okkulten Freimaurerei sind ähnlich. Sie laufen einander parallel.”


TRANSLATIONS VIA BABELFISH FOR THE TWO GERMAN-LANGUAGE QUOTES:
* Dieter Rüggeberg – ” Secret politics – the timetable to the world domination”:
” Also that realization, from which I already wrote that in the highest floors of the highest Logen and medals the differences of denominations and political opinions disappear, from it confirmed: ‚Liking on the lower levels free bricklaying and Jesuitismus and thus the catholicism still so much to fight, in their highest points agree themselves both, may appear still so wrong…. Now cardinal Wojtyla began his office in Rome as a Pope Johannes Paul II. It received from the entire freimaurerischen world press effusive enthusiastic agreement and main header with effect 27.11.1983 (beginning of the church yearly and 1st Advent) the Exkommunikation of the freemasons expressed world-wide in the Codex luris Canonici up. ‘[Heinz Pfeifer: " Brothers of the shade”, P. 234.236]”
* Rudolf Steiner – ” The temple degrees and the golden legend”:
” Therefore you have both in the Jesuitismus and in the Freimaurertum a continuation of the same ceremonies with the inaugurations as in the old currents. The inauguration of the church in the Jesuitismus has the four degrees: coadjutores temp-oral, scholares, coadjutores spirituales, professi. The degrees of the inauguration in the actual okkulten free bricklaying are similar. They run each other parallel.”

The Ancient and Illustrious Order Knights of Malta
The Royal Black Institution
1880s





FACT FILE
There are a "family" of Orders represented by the two titles, The Ancient and Illustrious Order Knights of Malta and The Royal Black Institution. The history is as follows;
At the turn of the century, in the United States of America there existed no shortage of groups claiming to be Knightly fraternities of St John, owing their origins through Freemasonry, or through the Black Association, ancillary to the Orange Lodges, created for the preservation of a Protestant Ireland.
Chevalier Andrew Ramsey, a Jacobite Catholic Scotsman of humble origins, was at one time secretary to the French writer and Churchman, Fenelon, and a Knight in an Order connected to the Order of St Lazarus. In a speech to a group of French Freemasons, in 1736, Ramsey provided a mediæval antecedent to the Masons with the Order of St John. This provided the beginnings of Masonic 'Orders of John'. In the development of his theme, he also provided the Knights Templar, as part of Freemasonry heritage. This antecedent, whilst having gained popular belief in the past, is now rejected in any academic account of the beginnings of Freemasonry - even by authors within Freemasonry.
Some "Orders of St John" resulting from this development preserve in their histories justification of the connection via Freemasonry to the historic Order. One myth, is that after James Sandiland, the last Scottish Prior, abdicated in 1563, (with the property of the Order in Scotland being given to him as a personal possession by Queen Mary), he and his followers continued a tradition of St John, but as a Protestant organisation, and that after Sandiland's death, the movement merged into Scottish Freemasonry. Another myth, is that, in France, there was some kind of interconnection between Hospitaller Knights and Freemasonry, which introduced the Order of St John into Freemasonry. Roger Peyrefitte provides some substance to a connection in his story of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta being subjected to a Papal Commission in the 1950s which ruled on the nature of its sovereignty. Within Peyrefitte's account is the claim that, a Masonic Lodge existed on Malta, in Grand Master De Rohan's time consisting of Knights, and that this Lodge had been founded by a Knight of the Order.
The Orange Order (or Society as it was first known) was formed in 1795 to maintain Protestant ascendancy in Ireland, and by its name celebrates the victory of William of Orange over the Roman Catholic King James II at the Boyne River in 1690. The development of the Lodges of the Society were heavily influenced by Freemasonry. By 1797, a new organisation emerged intimately connected with the Orange Order, the Royal Black Association of the Knights of Malta. As with the Orange Order, with its system of degrees, so too, did members of the Black Association progress in membership through degrees. The inference by apologists of the "St John/Malta Orders" tracing their origins through the Black Association, is that, Knights of Freemasonry formed the basis of the Black Association. One Author in referring to the Freemasonry Knights, states "the Malta Order in Britain was, in effect, "captured" by the Orange Institution." For example, to be a member of the Black Association, a man had to be a member of the Orange Order, and have first reached the Purple Degree.
In 1807, HRH Ernest Augustus, the Duke of Cumberland became the Grand Master of the Orange Order, but in 1836 owing to a Parliamentary investigation into the Orange Lodges attached to Irish regiments, the Duke dissolved the Orange Order. A year later, in 1837, the Duke became the King of Hanover. The Orange Order, revived in 1845 being kept alive by Lodge members. In common with other British Institutions, branches were formed in Scotland, Ireland, England and Canada, and spreading out from there. The International Headquarters was known by the lengthy and somewhat pompous title of "Imperial Parent Grand Black Encampment of the Universe", with its centre based in Glasgow.
The Black Association was represented in Canada, as early as 1829, with other groups existing there in the 1840s. By 1868, the organisation had spread to New York. The members of the North American organisation, saw themselves very much as the Black Association of the 'Knights of Malta', with more emphasis on the chivalric aspects, and less on the fraternal masonic aspects.
From 1870, the Order in North America began to flourish. In 1874, Robert Ernest Augustus Land was elected as Grand Commander of the Order of the Knights of Malta, and on June 19th 1875, the North American organisation the 'Supreme Grand Black Encampment' of North America was granted autonomy in its affairs by the Imperial Parent. Almost straight away, the American group abolished the need for members to belong to the Orange Order. There was a reduction in the number of degrees from twelve to three. The move away from a fraternal model to the chivalric model of organisation became more marked. These developments strained relationships with the Imperial Grand Parent in the years 1875 to 1881, when on the 4th June 1881 the Imperial Parent cancelled the Warrant which created the American Organisation. Land continued to lead the American organisation, with the loyalists to the Scottish Parents having to re-organise, but like the Independent organisation they also adopted a chivalric model of existence, assuming the name of "Ancient and Illustrious Order of the Knights of Malta". By 1954, relationships by the loyal organisation with the Parent organisation had ceased.
The independent organisation led by Robert Land, with its headquarters in Toronto, was known as the "Knights of St John and Malta". The ditching of the identity of a political-fraternal organisation had left a gap, which was quickly filled, as the Order took on the role of a friendly society in providing insurance for its members, which became a formal part of the Order in 1882, becoming a compulsory element for the members by 1896. According to Formals, this led to a steady decline in membership, which in its turn led to a faction setting up independently in 1906, led by Charles Hayward as the "Order of Knights Hospitaller". In January 1908, Hayward's group held a meeting at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York, in an attempt to enlarge its membership with prominent persons. By 1921, the organisation had ceased existence.
In 1910, owing to 10 deaths, and the inability of the Scheme to make proper payments, the Order of the Knights of St John and Malta was subjected to an investigation by the Superintendent of Insurance of the State of New York, which issued an order of liquidation. As a result of the investigations, the Order's Grand Chancellor, Henry C. Siegman committed suicide. These events led to a near collapse of the Order. The Grand Priory of Canada became independent, and Arthur T. Lamson in a bid to create a continuing organisation led a further group called "The Knights of Malta", which registered itself as a Corporation in the State of Jersey in 1911. However by 1912 the group had become defunct, with the members re-joining the main organisation, which despite, the disgrace over the insurance problems, and severe loss of membership, had managed to continue its existence.
In 1928, the Knights of St John and Malta increased it membership, by the reconciliation with the Canadian Priory, and by the addition of Knights who claimed to have been part of the historic Spanish Order. The name of the Order was changed to "The Sovereign Order of St John and Malta". By the 1950s, the central administration of the Order had fallen into abeyance, leaving two Commanderies operating independently, that of Pennsylvania, led by Franklin A. West, and California (known as the Priory of the Pacific) led by Robert Formhals. This group joined the self-styled "Pichel Order".
Robert Formhals a member of one of the surviving Commanderies argues that the Order separated from Pichel and was adopted as the basis of the King Peter Order.
THE
IMPERIAL NOBILITY
OF ITALY


ACEDO
H.E. Count / Graf Don Francisco Acedo Fernández Pereira ,
de jure Duke of Candia and Duke of Crete ,
Count of Dominè , Count of Bergamin ,
Count Wetter-Tegerfelden , Patrician of Naples ,
Noble of Paternò , Hidalgo of Navarre and Castille .

H.E. Count / Graf Don Manuel Santiago Acedo Fernández
Patrician of Naples , Noble of Paternò ,
Hidalgo of Navarre and Castille.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.E. Countess / Graefin Donna Matilde Antonia Fernández del Amo
( Countess of The Holy Roman Empire )

ALBERTI DI POJA
H.E. Count / Graf Antonia Clemente Alberti di Poja .
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

ALDOBRANDINI
H.E. Marquis / Margrave Don Camillo Aldobrandini.
( Marquess of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF ALLIATA
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Gabriele Alliata di Villafranca .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF ALONZO DI ANCONA
See: Count and Baron von Reinheim and
Baron von Steffenberg, Senior line*

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Aaron Alonzo di Ancona ,
Duke / Herzog of Filottrano and of Monte Conero ,
Marquess / Margrave of Apiro, Count / Graf of Visso ,
Noble and Patrician of Rome and Ancona .
(Prince, Duke, Marquess and Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

H.S.H. Princess / Furstin Donna Arianna Alonzo di Ancona ,
Duchess of Filottrano and of Monte Conero ,
Marchioness of Apiro, Countess of Visso .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.S.H. Princess / Furstin Donna Alyssandria Alonzo di Ancona ,
Duchess of Filottrano and of Monte Conero ,
Marchioness of Apiro, Countess of Visso .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

ANTONELLI
Carlo Antonelli.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF d'AQUINO
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Alessandro d'Aquino.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

ATTEMS or ATTIMIS
H.E. Count / Graf Federico Cristiano Attems.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF d'AVALOS
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Francesco d'Avalos.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

AVENTI
Luciano Aventi.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

BARBASETTI DI PRUN
Giangiorgio Barbasetti di Prun.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

BARBIANNO DI BELGIOIOSO D'ESTE
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Barbianno di Belgioioso D'Este .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

BARBIANNO DI BELGIOIOSO
H.E. Count / Graf Guido Barbianno di Belgioioso.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

BENVENUTI
H.E. Count / Graf Ferrante Mercurino Benvenuti.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

BERTOLINI
Luigi Bertolini.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

BLANCHETTI REVELLI
Lanfranco Blanchetti Revelli.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

BONACOSSI
Knight / Ritter Bonacolsa Bonacossi.
( Knight of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF BONCOMPAGNI LUDOVISI
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Nicolo Francesco Boncompagni Ludovisi.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF BONIFAZI DI STATTE
H.R.H. Giancarlo Bonfazi di Statte
de jure Prince of Tournai ,
Count of The Holy Roman Empire ,
Count of Statte, Baron of Ardgour .
( Count of The Holy Romann Empire )

H.R.H. Simona Bonfazi di Statte
de jure Princess of Tournai ,
Countess of The Holy Roman Empire ,
Countess of Statte, Baroness of Ardgour .
( Countess of The Holy Romann Empire )

BOSSI FEDIGROTTI
H.E. Count / Graf Frederico Bossi Fedigrotti.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

BRAGADIN
Marco Alvise Bragadin.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

BUFFA
H.E. Baron / Freiherr Guido Buffa.
( Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

CAPPONI
H.E. Count / Graf Neri Capponi.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF CARACCIOLO
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Francesco Caracciolo.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF CARAFA DELLA SPINA
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Gregorio Carafa Della Spina.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

COMPAGNINO
H.E. Baron / Freiherr Giuseppe Compagnino .
( Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

CASTELBARCO ALBANI VISCONTI SIMONETTA
H.E. Count / Furst Carlo Castelbarco Albani Visconti Simonetta.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

CASTRACANE DEGLI ANTELMINELLI
H.E. Count / Furst Castracane Degli Antelminelli.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

COZZARELLI
Lady / Frau Lucrecia Herrera Cozzarelli.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF CHIGI ALBANI DELLA ROVERE
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Agostino Chigi Albani Della Rovere.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

CIGALA
H.E. Count / Graf Oscar Cigala.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

CLARICINI DI DORNPACHER
Raimondo Claricini di Dornpacher.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

D'ANTONINICH / BARONY VON DEM CHERSO
( House of Steinhurst von der Steinhorst, (*Senior line )
See: Princely County and Barony von der Steinhorst,
Barony of Dromcummer , *Senior Line .
Kingdom of Westphalia, Prince Electorship of Westphalia
Principality of Fulda, Marquisate of Auvergne, *Cadet Line .

H.Ill.H. Count / Graf Nelson Keith Steinhurst von der Steinhorst ,
Baron / Freiherr von dem Cherso .
( Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.Ill.H. Countess / Graefin Diana Elaine Antoninich-Steinhurst von der Steinhorst ,
Baroness / Freifrau von dem Cherso .
( Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Prince Keith Patrick Steinhurst of Westphalia ,
Baron / Freiherr von dem Cherso .
(See: Kingdom of Westphalia, *Cadet Line)
( Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.Ill.H. Countess / Graefin Joanna Nicole Steinhurst von der Steinhorst ,
Baroness / Freifrau von dem Cherso .
( Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire )

di COLLALTO
H.E. Count / Graf Giovanni di Collalto.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

COLLOREDO MELS
H.E. Count / Graf Antonio Vicardo Colloredo Mels.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

COZZARELLI
Lady / Frau Lucrecia Cozzarelli.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

de CONTI
H.E. Countess / Graefin Gisella de Conti.
( Countess of The Holy Roman Empire )

DI GERASA
H.E. Count / Graf Kyrill di Gerasa ,
Conte di Gerasa , Bishop of Aurora and Illinois .
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF DORIA PAMPHILJ LANDJ
H.S.H. Don Prince / Furst Jonathan Paul Andrea Doria Pamphilj Landj .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

DORIA
H.E. Marquess / Margrave Giorgio Doria ,
Count / Graf of Montaldeo .
( Marquess of The Holy Roman Empire )

KINGDOM OF ETRURIA IN THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE
(The Royal House of Johnson,*Senior Line)
(See: Duchy of Florence and Principality of Santa Croce)

H.R.H. Prince Ralph of Etruria,
Duke of Florence, de jure King of Etruria,
Imperial Vice-Chancellor of Italy .
( Kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Marianne of Etruria,
Duchess of Florence, de jure Queen of Etruria.
( Kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Prince Rutherford of Etruria ,
Hereditary Prince of Etruria,
Duke of Florence.
( Kingdom in the Holy Roman Empire )

FIORIO
H.E. Baron / Freiherr Carlo Fiorio.
( Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

DUCHY OF FLORENCE
(The Royal House of Johnson,*Senior Line)
(See: Kingdom of Etruria and Principality of Santa Croce)

H.R.H. Prince Ralph of Etruria,
Duke / Herzog of Florence ,
( Duke of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Marianne of Etruria,
Duchess / Herzogin of Florence ,
( Duchess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Prince Rutherford of Etruria ,
Hereditary Duke / Herzog of Florence ,
( Duke of The Holy Roman Empire )

SCIORTINO
H.E. Count / Graf Antonio Sciortino .
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

FRANCHINI STAPPO
Piero Alessandro Franchini Stappo.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

dalla FRATTA PASINI
H.E. Count / Graf Alessandro dalla Fratta Pasini.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

della GHERARDESCA
H.E. Count / Graf Walfredo della Gherardesca.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

GIOVANELLI
H.E. Count / Graf Don Alberto Carlo Giovanelli.
(Count of The Holy Roman Empire)

PRINCELY HOUSE OF GONZAGA
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Maurizio Gonzage.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

GRAMATICA
Giovanni Gramatica.
(Noble of The Holy Roman Empire)

GROPPLERO DI TROPPENBURG
Knight / Ritter Gian Andrea Gropplero di Troppenburg.
( Knight of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF GUASCO GALLARATE or GALLARATI
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Francesco Guasco Gallarate.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

GUIDOBONO CAVALCHINI GAROFOLI
H.E. Baron / Freiherr Giuseppe Guidobono Cavalchini Garofoli.
( Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF HERCOLANI
H.H. Prince / Furst Don Andre Hercolani.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

IMPELLIZZERI
H.E. Baron / Freiherr Vincenzo Impellizzeri.
( Baron Of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF LANDI
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Landi of Valditaro ,
Prince of Valditaro .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCE ELECTORSHIP OF LOMBARDY
His Imperial and Royal Highness
Prince Karl Friedrich of Germany ,
Imperial Prince Elector of Lombardy ,
Duke and Prince of Lombardy ,
de jure King of Lombardy .
( Prince Elector of The Holy Roman Empire )

KINGDOM OF ITALY / LOMBARDY
H.I.&.R.H. Prinz Karl Friedrich von Deutschland,
Herzog von Swabia , Herzog von Saxe-Altenburg ,
de jure Charles VIII I.R. ,
de jure King of Italy / Lombardy.
( King in The Holy Roman Empire )

DUCHY OF LOMBARDY
H.I.&.R.H. Prinz Karl Friedrich von Deutschland,
Herzog von Swabia, Herzog von Saxe-Altenburg,
de jure Charles VIII I.R.
Duke / Herzog of Lombardy.
( Duke of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCIPALITY OF LOMBARDY
H.I.&.R.H. Prinz Karl Friedrich von Deutschland,
Herzog von Swabia, Herzog von Saxe-Altenburg,
de jure Charles VIII I.R.
Prince / Furst of Lombardy.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

DUCHY OF LUCCA
Reverts back to the Imperial Crown.
Duke / Herzog of Lucca.
( Duke of The Holy Roman Empire )

LUPIS MACEDONIO PALERMO
H.E. Marquis Don Marco Lupis Macedonio Palermo,
13th Duke of San Donato, 12th Duke of Grottolelle,
14th Marquis of Tortora, 11th Marquis of Ruggiano,
10th Marquis of Oliveto, 8th Marquis of Capriglia,
Count / Graf and Knight / Ritter of the Holy Roman Empire .
( Count and Knight of The Holy Roman Empire )

MACH DI PALMSTEIN
Gianfranco Mach Di Palmstein.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

MARESCA
H.E. Marquis / Margrave Antonio Maresca .
( Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire )

MARULLI DI SAN CESARIO
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Marulli Di San Cesario .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

MARULLI
H.E. Count / Graf Marulli.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

DUCAL HOUSE OF MASSA AND CARRARA
H.S.H. Don John Malcolm James Cracknell,
Duke and Marquis of Massa and Carrara.
( Duke and Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire )

SOVEREIGN DUCHY OF MODENA
Reverted back to the Imperial Crown and Emperor,
Duke of / Herzog von Modena.
( Sovereign Duchy of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCIPALITY DI SANTA CROCE
(The Royal House of Johnson,*Senior Line)
(See: Kingdom of Etruria and Duchy of Florence)

H.R.H. Prince Ralph of Etruria,
Prince di Santa Croce, Prince del Monte Titano ,
Duke di Santa Croce , Duke del Monte Titano,
Marquis del Monte Titano , Count of Valais ,
Count del Monte Titano , Count and Baron Johnson ,
Reichsritter of The Holy Roman Empire ,
Noble of Rome and Patrician of Rome .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Marianne of Etruria,
Princess di Santa Croce, Princess del Monte Titano ,
Duchess di Santa Croce , Duchess del Monte Titano,
Marchioness del Monte Titano , Countess of Valais ,
Countess del Monte Titano , Countess and Baroness Johnson
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Prince Rutherford of Etruria ,
Hereditary Prince di Santa Croce ,
Duke del Monte Titano, Marquis del Monte Titano .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

HOUSE OF JOHNSON DI SANTA CROCE
(*Cadet Line)

H.E. Count / Graf Charles Daniel II Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baron / Freiherr di Santa Croce .
( Count and Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.E. Countess / Graefin Rebecca Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baroness / Freifrau di Santa Croce ,
( Countess and Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.E. Count / Graf Charles Daniel III Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baron / Freiherr di Santa Croce .
( Count and Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.E. Countess / Graefin Jennifer Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baroness / Freifrau di Santa Croce , (Mrs. Anderson).
( Countess and Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.E. Count / Graf Andrew Johnson di Santa Croce ,
Baron / Freiherr di Santa Croce
( Count and Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF MELI LUPI
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Bonifazio Meli Lupi.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

DUCHY OF MILAN
Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Duke of / Herzog von Milan.
( Duke of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF MILANO D'ARAGONA
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Pietro Milano Franco D'Aragona.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

MISTRUZZI DI FRISINGA
Francesco Milano di Frisinga.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

DUCHY AND COUNTY OF FRIULI
Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Duke / Herzog and Count / Graf of Friuli.
( Duke and Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

MONTECUCCOLI DEGLI ERRI
H.E. Count / Graf Montecuccoli Degli Erri.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

MONTECUCCOLI-LADERCHI
H.E. Count / Graf Montecuccoli-Laderchi.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

DUCHY OF NAPLES
Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Duke / Herzog of Naples.
( Duchy of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF ODESCALCHI
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Ladislao Odescalchi.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF ORSINI
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Heinrich von Orsini und Rosenberg.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF PALLAVICINI
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Giulio Pallavicini.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.S.H. Princess / Furstin Donna Elvina Pallavicini.
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

PALLAVICINI - PALLAVICINO
H.E. Marquis / Margrave Adalberto Pallavicini.
( Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire )

PARETO SPINOLA
H.E. Marquis / Margrave Raffaele Pareto Spinola.
( Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire )

PARIBELLI
Pier Giacinto Paribelli.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

PAVAROTTI
H.E. Count / Graf Luciano Pavarotti di Modena
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

PECORI GIRALDI
H.E. Count / Graf Francesco Pecori Giraldi.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

PIANETTI
H.E. Marquis / Margrave Bernardo Pianetti.
( Marquis of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF PIGNATELLI ARAGONA CORTES
H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Nicola Pignatelli Aragona Cortes.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.S.H. Prince / Furst Don Mario Pignatelli Aragona Cortes.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

PONTOGLIO-BINO
H.E. Count / Graf Alessandro Pontoglio-Bino.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF di PORCIA e BRUGNERA
H.S.H. Prince / Furst di Porcia e Brugnera.
( Prince and Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

RAGGI
Antonio Raggi.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

RAVIGNANI DE'PIACENTINI
Gianluigi Ravignani de'Piacentini.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCELY HOUSE OF ROSPIGLIOSI
H.H. Prince / Furst Don Filippo Rospigliosi.
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

SARCHI
H.E. Count / Graf Auselmo Sarchi.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

SAIBANTE
Ugo Vittorio.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )

SALVADORI DI WIESENHOF
H.E. Baron / Freiherr Vittorio Emanuele Salvadori di Wiesenhof.
( Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

KINGDOM OF ITALY / ROYAL HOUSE OF SAVOY
H.R.H. Prince Vittoria Emanuele of Savoy, Prince of Naples .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Marina of Savoy, Princess of Naples .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Prince Emanuele Filiberto of Savoy ,
Prince of Venice and Piedmont .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Clotilde Marie of Savoy ,
Princess of Venice and Piedmont .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Vittoria of Savoy .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Luisa of Savoy .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Maria Pia of Savoy .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Maria Gabriella of Savoy .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Maria Beatrice of Savoy .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Prince Amedeo of Savoy, 5th Duke of Aosta .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Priness Silvia of Savoy, Duchess of Aosta .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Bianca of Savoy .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Prince Aimone of Savoy, Duke of Apulia .
( Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Mafalda of Savoy .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Isabella of Savoy .
( Princess of The Holy Roman Empire )

PRINCIPALITY OF SEBORGA
H.M.S.H. Prince / Furst Giorgio I of Seborga ,
( Sovereign Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

di SEREGO ALIGHIERI
H.E. Count / Graf Pieralvise di Serego Alighieri.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

SOLARO
H.E. Count / Graf Fausto Solaro.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

STANCHINA
Knight / Ritter Camillo Stanchina.
( Knight of The Holy Roman Empire )

STRASSOLDO
H.E. Count / Graf Giovan Battista Strassoldo.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

TAXIS BORDOGNA VALNIGRA
H.E. Baron / Freiherr Carlos Taxis Bordogna Valnigra.
( Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

TOMASELLA
H.E. Count / Graf Don Federico Tomasella ,
Count and Baron Tomasella , Noble of Rome.
( Count and Baron of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.E. Countess / Graefin Donna Carmen Alicia Dotti-Tomasella,
Dowager Countess and Baroness Tomasella.
( Countess and Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire )

H.R.H. Princess Alicia Gabriela of Westphalia,
(nee: H.E. Countess Donna Alicia Gabriela Tomasella )
Countess and Baroness Tomasella .
(See: The Kingdom of Westphalia).
( Countess and Baroness of The Holy Roman Empire )

MARGRAVIATE OF TUSCANY
Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Margrave of Tuscany.
( Margraviate of The Holy Roman Empire )

GRAND DUCHY OF TUSCANY
H.I.&.R.H. Archduke Sigismund von Habsburg of Austria,
Prince of Tuscany, Head of the Grand Ducal House of Tuscany.
( Prince, Duke, and Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

DUCHY AND COUNTY OF TURIN
Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Duke / Herzog and Count / Graf of Turin.
( Sovereign Duke and Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

VALVASONE
H.E. Count / Graf Ettore Valvasone.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

dal VERME
H.E. Count / Graf Ludovico dal Verme.
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

MARGRAVIATE AND PRINCIPALITY OF VERONA
Part of the Imperial Patrimony of the Emperor.
Margrave and Prince / Furst of Verona.
( Margrave and Prince of The Holy Roman Empire )

WINDISCH-GRAETZ
H.E. Count / Graf Mariano Ugo Windisch-Graetz
( Count of The Holy Roman Empire )

ZORZI GIUSTINIANI
Antonio Zorzi Giustiniani.
( Noble of The Holy Roman Empire )
Ptolemaic Papal bloodlines:

Orsini
Breakspear
Aldobrandini
Farnese
Somaglia

All controlled through the Jesuit Order and their Knights of Malta & Teutonic Knights all based in missile protected Borgo Santo Spirito in Rome.

Pepe Orsini - Italy
Henry Breakspear - Macau, China

This is the true power finally.

This is the Guelph and the Ghibelline power over mankind.

The Cecil family were controlled by the powerful Jesuit family known as the Pallavicini.

Maria Camilla Pallavicini is far more powerful than Queen Elizabeth II.

The Queen and Prince Philip are totally subordinate to the Papal Bloodline the Breakspear Family and their Jesuit UKHQ at 114 Mount Street.

Please go and study who funded Elizabeth I that astronomical amount of money to fight the Spanish, yes Pallavicini.

The most powerful man right now in the conspiracy over this World is a Roman by the name of PEPE ORSINI of the powerful Roman Papal Bloodline the Orsini also known as Orso and the ancient Maximus family.

There is no one more powerful than this figure who is really the Grey Pope.

The Papal Bloodlines are the secret shadow hieracy of the Jesuit Order even behind the Black Pope touted at the #1.

These powerful bloodlines are the Breakspear, Somaglia, Orsini, Farnese & Aldobrandini.

You'll notice David Rothschild marrying into the Aldobrandini with the pretty, Princess Olimpia Aldobrandini.

Another real head of this is Henry Breakspear who resides now in Macau in China.

Many of the Papal Bloodline heads now live in Asia and India. What does that tell you?

The current Black Pope, Adolfo Nicholas was bought forward for the position due to the Jesuits bringing about of Asia as the next power player of the agenda.

Both this Black Pope and the white Pope aren't of Papal Bloodline, they are both commoners.

I've named the most powerful families on the planet. I've named the Grey Pope the one inbetween the white and black but unseen

Saturnalian Brotherhood - The Real 13 Zoroastrian Bloodlines of the Illuminati

House of Borja
House of Breakspeare
House of Somaglia
House of Orsini
House of Conti
House of Chigi
House of Colonna
House of Farnese
House of Medici
House of Gaetani
House of Pamphili
House of Este
House of Aldobrandini

These Egyptian Ptolemaic Dynasty Rulers are in Full Control of the Company of Jesus, High Grey Council of Ten, and the Black Pope

This is some good info on the Black Pope:

The 'Black Pope', Superior Jesuit General (The President of the World), speaks at Loyola 'Military Fortress' University in his un-ratified 14th Amendment 'Little Rome' D.C United States Corporation.

A corporation under International Maritime Admiralty Law (Uniform Commerical Code) based upon Vatican Canon Law and perfected by the Roman Empire.

He lies about his power, he's over the Pope as of 1814.

He only serves and works with the shadow Jesuits being the Papal Bloodline Orsini's, Breakspear's, Aldobrandini's, Farnese's, Somalgia's.

Adolfo is not of Papal Bloodline, some Black Pope's have been.

The next in power beneath the Jesuits is the Bourbon, King Juan Carlos of Spain. The Roman Monarch of the World, The King of Jerusalem and SMOM Military Navigator.

This is the true World's power system right now.

Adolfo serves as a military General protecting the Zoroathrianism and Mithraism mystery schools.

The Jesuits were created by the Papal Bloodline Farnese during the reign of Farnese Pope Paul III.

Loyola was commissioned by Alessandro Cardinal Farnese.

Last Edited by Open Your Eyes on 6/15/2010 at 12:37 AM

The Borgia crime family created the Jesuits!!

After the terrible reign of Pope Alexander VI, the Romans were disgusted with the Spanish and vowed that there would never be another Spanish Pope. This animosity toward the Spanish was further aggravated by the Sack of Rome in 1527 in order to prevent the divorce of Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon.

The Borgia answer to this Spanish animosity was the creation of the order of Jesuits—a quasi religious/military strike force whose members were totally dedicated to their Spanish leader who bore the military title of general.

Like the White Pope, the general is elected for life and the Jesuit dynasty is a parallel or pseudo Papacy....Of course, the general is content to run the show from behind the scenes so as not to arouse the age-old Italian hatred for the Spanish.

The Jesuit general is referred to as the '"Black" Pope at the Vatican because he always dresses in black.

The Jesuits were officially founding in 1540 by Pope Paul III. Ignatius LIEola became their first general.

Don Francis Borgia was the great-grandson of Pope Alexander VI, and co-founder of the Jesuits. On his mother's side he was descended from King Ferdinand of Aragon.

The Spanish control the Vatican through the Jesuits.

For the past 500 years, the Spanish Inquisition has controlled the Vatican by means of the Jesuits. All the Jesuits answer to their general in Rome, and he in turn is content to run the show from behind the scenes, without any publicity or public acclaim so as not to arouse the age-old Italian hostility to the Spanish...
 

The Medici family was a powerful and influential Florentine family from the 13th to 17th century. The family produced three popes (Leo X, Clement VII, and Leo XI), numerous rulers of Florence (notably Lorenzo the Magnificent, patron of some of the most famous works of renaissance art), and later members of the French and English royalty. Like other Signore families they dominated their city's government. They were able to bring Florence under their family's power allowing for an environment where art and humanism could flourish. They led the birth of the Italian Renaissance along with the other great signore families of Italy like the Visconti and Sforza families of Milan, the Este of Ferrara, the Gonzaga of Mantua, and others.
The Medici Bank was one of the most prosperous and most respected in Europe. There are some estimates that the Medici family was, for a period of time, the wealthiest family in Europe. From this base, the family acquired political power initially in Florence, and later in wider Italy and Europe. A notable contribution to the profession of accounting was the improvement of the general ledger system through the development of the double-entry bookkeeping system for tracking credits and debits. This system was first used by accountants working for the Medici family in Florence.

The Medici family came from the agricultural Mugello region, north of Florence, being mentioned for the first time in a document of 1230.
The origin of the name is uncertain although its Italian meaning is "medical doctor". Members of the family rose to some prominence in the early 14th century in the wool trade, especially with France and Spain. Despite the presence of some Medicis in the city's government institutions, they were still far less notable than outstanding families such as the Albizzi or the Strozzi. One Salvestro de' Medici was speaker of the woolmakers' guild during the Ciompi revolt, and one Antonio was sentenced to death in 1396. The involvement in another plot in 1400 caused all branches of the family to be banned from Florence's politics for twenty years, with the exception of two: from one of the latter, that of Averardo (Bicci) de' Medici, originated the Medici dynasty.
Averardo's son, Giovani di Bicci, increased the wealth of the family through his creation of the Medici Bank, and became one of the richest men in the city. Although never holding any political charge, he gained a strong popular support to the family when he supported the introduction of a proportional taxing system.
His son Cosimo the Elder took over in 1434 as gran maestro, and the Medici became unofficial heads of state of the Florentine republic.
The family of Piero de' Medici portrayed by Sandro Botticelli in the Madonna del Magnificat.The "senior" branch of the family — those descended from Cosimo the Elder — ruled until the assassination of Alessandro de' Medici, first Duke of Florence, in 1537. This century-long rule was only interrupted on two occasions (between 1494–1512 and 1527–1530), when popular revolts sent the Medici into exile. Power then passed to the "junior" branch — those descended from Lorenzo the Elder, younger son of Giovanni di Bicci, starting with his great-great-grandson Cosimo I the Great. The Medici's rise to power was chronicled in detail by Benedetto Dei.
Cosimo and his father started the Medici foundations in banking, manufacturing - including a form of franchises - wealth, art, cultural patronage, and in the Papacy that ensured their success for generations. At least half, probably more, of Florence’s people were employed by them and their foundational branches in business.
Piero de' Medici (1416-1469), Cosimo’s son, only stayed in power a few years. He was called Piero the Gouty because of the gout that infected his foot. He had no interest in the arts as his father. He mostly stayed at home and had no influence of Florence.(r. 1464-1469), until his grandson Lorenzo took over. Lorenzo de' Medici “the Magnificent” (1449-1492), was more capable of leading and ruling a city. However, “Magnificent” was a common title and essentially does not mean anything special in itself. He showed his children great love and affection, too. To ensure the continuance of his success, Lorenzo perceived his children’s abilities and planned their futures and careers for them. He predicted, or rather forced, Piero II to be headstrong, Giovanni a scholar, and Giuliano--not to be confused with Lorenzo’s brother who had the same first name--good. Giuliano, Lorenzo’s brother, was assassinated in church on Easter Sunday (1478). Lorenzo adopted Giuliano’s illegitimate son, Giulio de' Medici (1478-1535), the future Clement VII. The incompetent Piero II took over as the head of Florence after his father’s, Lorenzos', death. Piero was responsible for the expulsion of the Medici from 1494-1512.
The Medici remained masters of Italy through their two famous 16th century popes, Leo X and Clement VII, who were de facto rulers of both Rome and Florence. They were both patrons of the arts, but in the religious field they proved unable to stem the advance of Martin Luther's ideas. Another Medici became Pope: Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici (Leo XI).
The most outstanding figure of the 16th century Medici was Cosimo I, who, coming from a retire in the Mugello, rose to supremacy in the whole of Tuscany, conquering the Florentines' most hated rival Siena and founding the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.

Key Family Members
Name Year Position and Power
Salvestro de' Medici 1331–1388 dictator of Florence, and banished in 138
Giovanni di Bicci de' Medici 1360–1429 made the Medici family the wealthiest in Europe
Cosimo the Elder 1389–1464 founder of the Medici political dynasty
Lorenzo the Magnificent 1449–1492 leader of Florence during the Golden Age of the Renaissanc
Giovanni de' Medici 1475–1523 Pope Leo X
Giulio de' Medici 1478–1534 Pope Clement VII
Cosimo I the Great 1519–1574 First Grand Duke of Tuscany
Catherine de' Medici 1519–1589 Queen of France
Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici 1535–1605 Pope Leo XI
Marie de' Medici 1575–1642 Queen and Regent of France
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici 1667–1743 the last of the Medici line





 

The Farnese family The Farnese family was an influential family in Renaissance Italy. Its most important members included Pope Paul III and Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, and the titles of Duke of Parma and Piacenza and of Castro were held by various members of the family.

A number of important architectural works and antiquities are associated with the Farnese family, either through construction or acquisition. Buildings include the Palazzo Farnese in Rome and the Villa Farnese at Caprarola, and ancient artifacts include the Farnese Marbles.Contents


Origins

The family could trace its origins back to around AD 984 and took their name from one of their oldest feudal possessions - Castrum Farneti. There has been some debate as to the origins of the name Farnesi/Farnese. Some suggest that it derives from the vernacular name for an oak found in the region, the Farnia (Quercus robur), but others have held that the name owes its origins to the Fara, a term of Lombard origin used to denote a particular social group. In the 12th century, they are recorded as minor feudataries in the areas of Tuscania and Orvieto, several members holding political positions in the latter commune. One Pietro defeated the Tuscan Ghibellines in 1110 and, most likely, fought against the Italo-Normans in 1134. His son Prudenzio was consul in Orvieto and defeated the Orvieto Ghibellines backed by Siena; another Pietro defended the town against Emperor Henry VI. In 1254, one Ranuccio defeated Todi's troops and fought for Pope Urban IV against Manfred of Sicily. His son Niccolò was in the Guelph army in the Battle of Benevento (1266).

The Farnese returned to Tuscia (southern Tuscany-northern Lazio) in 1319, when they acquired Farnese, Ischia di Castro, and the castles of Sala and San Savino. In 1354, Cardinal Albornoz, in return for the family's help in the war against the Papal riotous barons, gave them the territory of Valentano. In this period they fought against the fierce Papal rivals, the Prefetti di Vico. In 1362, Pietro Farnese was commander-in-chief of the Florentine army against Pisa in the war for Volterra. Six years later Niccolò Farnese saved Pope Urban V from the attack of Giovanni di Vico, first in the castle of Viterbo and then in that of Montefiascone. The loyalty to the Papal cause meant that the Farnese were granted confirmation of their possessions in the northern Lazio and given a series of privileges which raised them to the same level as more ancient and powerful Roman barons of the time, such as the Savelli, Orsini, Monaldeschi and Sforza of Santa Fiora.
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Rise of the family

Pope Paul III with his cardinal-nephew Alessandro Farnese (left) and his other grandson, Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma.

The family substantially increased its power in the course of the 15th century, as their territories reached the southern shore of the Lake Bolsena and Montalto, largely due to Ranuccio the Elder. He was commander-in-chief of the forces of neighbouring Siena against the Orsini of Pitigliano and, after his victory, received the title of Senator of Rome. His son, Gabriele Francesco, also took up a military career, a line of employment which disappeared after three generations.

Ranuccio's son, Pier Luigi, married a member of the ancient baronial family of the Caetani (that of Pope Boniface VIII), thus giving the Farnese further importance in Rome. His daughter, Giulia, who was a mistress of Pope Alexander VI, further expanded the Roman fortunes of her family by persuading the Pope to bestow on her brother Alessandro, the title of cardinal; under Alexander's successor Julius II he became governor of the Marca Anconetana and, in 1534, he was elected as pope and took the name of Paul III. Notable features of his reign included the establishment of the Council of Trent and an unprecedented level of nepotism, for example, two months after becoming pope in 1534, he made his 14 year-old grandson Alessandro a cardinal deacon.

Paul III died in 1549 and his political role in the Curia passed to his grandson Alessandro, who remained an influential cardinal and patron of the arts until his death in 1589.
[edit]
Dukes of Castro, Parma and Piacenza

The Farnese's Palazzo della Pilotta in Parma.

Paul III used his position as pontiff to increase the power and possessions of his family. He gave his illegitimate son, Pier Luigi, the title of gonfaloniere or Gonfalone of the Church. He also gave him the town of Castro with the title of Duke of Castro, granting him possession of lands from the Thyrrenian Sea to the Lake of Bolsena, as well as the area of Ronciglione and many other smaller fiefdoms.

In 1545, Paul handed over, from land once belonging to the Papal States, further territories in northern Italy to his son who took the additional title of the Duke of Parma. Two years later Pier Luigi was assassinated by his new subjects under a Spanish mandate. Despite intrigues by Charles V, the Pope reacted promptly and soon established Ottavio, Pier Luigi's son, on the ducal throne. Ottavio (1547–86) was given the additional title of Duke of Piacenza and initially established his court there where work was begun on a huge Farnese palace on the banks of the River Po. However, during construction, and probably in response to political intrigues by the Piacentine nobility, Ottavio Farnese moved his court to Parma where he had the Palazzo della Pilotta constructed in 1583.

The Farnese court in Parma and Piacenza under Duke Ranuccio II (1630–94) was one of the most splendid in Italy.

The Duchy of Parma and Piacenza continued to be ruled by the Farnese until the 17th century. But the city of Castro was removed from the Farnese family holdings when the Farnese fell out with the Barberini family of Pope Urban VIII sparking the Wars of Castro. In 1649, the conflict ended when Pope Innocent X had the city razed.[1]

The small dukedom eventually fell under the Spanish control and influence; the family lost Parma and Piacenza in 1731 when the last duke, Antonio Farnese, died without direct heirs and his collateral heir, his sister Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, passed a successful claim on to her sons, Don Carlos (later King Carlos III of Spain) and Filippo House of Bourbon-Parma.

Most notable members
Pietro Farnese (dates unknown)
Ranuccio Farnese (1390–1450)
Pier Luigi Farnese (1435–87)
Pope Paul III, born Alessandro Farnese (1468–1549)
Giulia Farnese, mistress of Pope Alexander VI and sister of the above Alessandro Farnese
Pier Luigi Farnese, first Duke of Parma (1503–47)
Alessandro Farnese, Cardinal (1520–89)
Ottavio Farnese, second Duke of Parma (1524–86)
Ranuccio Farnese, Cardinal (1530–65)
Alessandro Farnese, third Duke of Parma (1545–92)
Ranuccio I Farnese, fourth Duke of Parma (1569–1622)
Odoardo Farnese, fifth Duke of Parma (1612–46)
Ranuccio II Farnese, sixth Duke of Parma (1630–94)
Francesco Farnese, seventh Duke of Parma (1678–1727)
Antonio Farnese, eighth Duke of Parma (1679–1731)
Elizabeth Farnese, Queen of Spain, wife of King Philip V, mother of Charles III (1692–1766)

Pronunciation

Those who speak English sometimes pronounce Farnese as "Far-neez" or "Far-ness", but the correct pronunciation is [farˈneːze], approximately Far - nay - zay.

References
^ World History at KMLA: War over Parma
Annibali, Flaminio Maria (1817–18). Notizie Storiche della Casa Farnese. Montefiascone.
del Vecchio, Edoardo (1972). I Farnese. Rome: Istituto di studi romani editore.
Drei, Giovanni (1954). I Farnese grandezza e decadenza di una dinastia italiana. Rome: La Libreria dello Stato.
Nasalli Rocca, Emilio (1969). I Farnese.